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"Enoch, a righteous man, who was (1) with God, answered and spoke, while his eyes were open, and while he saw a holy vision in the heavens. This the angels showed me. From them I heard all things, and understood what I saw; that which will not take place in this generation, but in a generation which is to succeed at a distant period, on account of the elect."

(1) N.B. The italicized words supply a gap in the text. Deut. 29:29
. Dan. 12:4
. Dan. 12:9
. Rev. 5:1 f
. Enoch 82:1

"Behold, he comes with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon them, and destroy the wicked, and reprove all the carnal for everything which the sinful and ungodly have done, and committed against him. (2)"

(2) Quoted by Jude, vss. 14, 15. Jude 1:14-15

"The elect shall possess light, joy, and peace; and they shall inherit the earth. But you, you unholy, shall be accursed."

"It happened after the sons of men had multiplied in those days, that daughters were born to them, elegant and beautiful."

"And when the angels, (3) the sons of heaven, beheld them, they became enamoured of them, saying to each other, Come, let us select for ourselves wives from the progeny of men, and let us beget children."

(3) An Aramaic text reads "Watchers" here (J.T. Milik, Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976], p. 167). Gen. 6:2

"Their whole number was two hundred, who descended upon Ardis, (4) which is the top of mount Armon. That mountain therefore was called Armon, because they had sworn upon it, (5) and bound themselves by mutual execrations."

(4) Upon Ardis. Or, "in the days of Jared" (R.H. Charles, ed. and trans., The Book of Enoch [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893], p. 63). (5) Mt. Armon, or Mt. Hermon, derives its name from the Hebrew word herem, a curse (Charles, p. 63). Josh. 12:4-5

"These were the prefects of the two hundred angels, and the remainder were all with them. (6)"

(6) The Aramaic texts preserve an earlier list of names of these Watchers: Semihazah; Artqoph; Ramtel; Kokabel; Ramel; Danieal; Zeqiel; Baraqel; Asael; Hermoni; Matarel; Ananel; Stawel; Samsiel; Sahriel; Tummiel; Turiel; Yomiel; Yhaddiel (Milik, p. 151).

"Then they took wives, each choosing for himself; whom they began to approach, and with whom they cohabited; teaching them sorcery, incantations, and the dividing of roots and trees."

"And the women conceiving brought forth giants, (7) Whose stature was each three hundred cubits."

Gen. 6:4
. (7) The Greek texts vary considerably from the Ethiopic text here. One Greek manuscript adds to this section, "And they [the women] bore to them [the Watchers] three races–first, the great giants. The giants brought forth [some say "slew"] the Naphelim, and the Naphelim brought forth [or "slew"] the Elioud. And they existed, increasing in power according to their greatness." See the account in the Book of Jubilees.

"And began to injure birds, beasts, reptiles, and fishes, to eat their flesh one after another, (8) and to drink their blood."

(8) Their flesh one after another. Or, "one another’s flesh." R.H. Charles notes that this phrase may refer to the destruction of one class of giants by another (Charles, p. 65).

"Impiety increased; fornication multiplied; and they transgressed and corrupted all their ways. Amazarak taught all the sorcerers, and dividers of roots: Armers taught the solution of sorcery; Barkayal taught the observers of the stars, (9) Akibeel taught signs; Tamiel taught astronomy; And Asaradel taught the motion of the moon, And men, being destroyed, cried out; and their voice reached to heaven."

(9) Observers of the stars. Astrologers (Charles, p. 67).

"And now to you, O you holy one of heaven, the souls of men complain, saying, Obtain Justice for us with (10) the Most High."

(10) Obtain justice for us with. Literally, "Bring judgment to us from." (Richard Laurence, ed. and trans., The Book of Enoch the Prophet [London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1883], p. 9).

"Then they said to their Lord, the King, You are Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings. The throne of your glory is for ever and ever, and for ever and ever is your name sanctified and glorified. You are blessed and glorified."

"You have made all things; you possess power over all things; and all things are open and manifest before you. You behold all things, and nothing can be concealed from you."

"They have gone together to the daughters of men; have lain with them; have become polluted; And have discovered crimes (11) to them."

(11) Discovered crimes. Or, "revealed these sins" (Charles, p. 70).

"Then the Most High, the Great and Holy One spoke, And sent Arsayalalyur (12) to the son of Lamech,"

(12) Arsayalalyur. Here one Greek text reads "Uriel."

"To Gabriel also the Lord said, Go to the biters, (13) to the reprobates, to the children of fornication; and destroy the children of fornication, the offspring of the Watchers, from among men; bring them forth, and excite them one against another. Let them perish by mutual slaughter; for length of days shall not be theirs."

(13) Biters. More accurately, "bastards" (Charles, p. 73; Michael A. Knibb, ed. and trans., The Ethiopic Book of Enoch [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978], p. 88).

"And when all their sons shall be slain, when they shall see the perdition of their beloved, bind them for seventy generations underneath the earth, even to the day of judgment, and of consummation, until the judgment, the effect of which will last for ever, be completed."

"Then shall they be taken away into the lowest depths of the fire in torments; and in confinement shall they be shut up for ever."

"Immediately after this shall he, (14) together with them, burn and perish; they shall be bound until the consummation of many generations."

(14) He. I.e., Samyaza.

"Destroy all the souls addicted to dalliance, (15) and the offspring of the Watchers, for they have tyrannized over mankind."

(15) Dalliance. Or, "lust" (Knibb, p. 90; cp. Charles, p. 76).

"Before all these things Enoch was concealed; nor did any one of the sons of men know where he was concealed, where he had been, and what had happened."

"He was wholly engaged with the holy ones, and with the Watchers in his days."

"Proceeding on, I continued over the waters of Danbadan, (16) which is on the right to the west of Armon, reading the memorial of their prayer, until I fell asleep."

(16) Danbadan. Dan in Dan (Knibb, p. 94).

"When I awoke I went to them. All being collected together stood weeping in Oubelseyael, which is situated between Libanos and Seneser, (17) with their faces veiled."

(17) Libanos and Seneser. Lebanon and Senir (near Damascus).

"This is the book of the words of righteousness, and of the reproof of the Watchers, who belong to the world, (18) according to that which He, who is holy and great, commanded in the vision."

(18) Who belong to the world. Or, "who (are) from eternity" (Knibb, p. 95).

"Neither shall you entreat for them, not for yourselves; But you shall weep and supplicate in silence. The words of the book which I wrote. (19)"

(19) But you shall weep... I wrote. Or, "Likewise despite your tears and prayers you will receive nothing whatever contained in the writing which I have written" (Charles, p. 80).

"A vision thus appeared to me. Behold, in that vision clouds and a mist invited me; agitated stars and flashes of lightning impelled and pressed me forwards, while winds in the vision assisted my flight, accelerating my progress. They elevated me aloft to heaven."

"I proceeded, until I arrived at a wall built with stones of crystal. A vibrating flame (20) surrounded it, which began to strike me with terror."

(20) Vibrating flame. Literally, "a tongue of fire"

"Its roof had the appearance of agitated stars and flashes of lightning; and among them were cherubim of fire in a stormy sky. (21)"

(21) In a stormy sky. Literally, "and their heaven was water" (Charles, p. 81).

"A fire was flaming around Him. A fire also of great extent continued to rise up before Him; so that not one of those who surrounded Him was capable of approaching Him, among the myriads of myriads (22) who were before Him. To Him holy consultation was needless."

(22) Myriads of myriads. Ten thousand times ten thousands (Knibb, p. 99).

"Wherefore have you forsaken the lofty and holy heaven, which endures for ever, and have lain with women; have defile yourselves with the daughters of men; have taken to yourselves wives; have acted like the sons of the earth, and have begotten an impious offspring? (23)"

(23) An impious offspring. Literally, "giants" (Charles, p. 82; Knibb, p. 101).

"But you from the beginning* were made spiritual, possessing a life which is eternal, and not subject to death for ever."

Electronic edition: The original text doesn't have the word "beginning" here. Thus the text does not say that the angels were made spiritual from the beginning of their existance, only that they were made spiritual sometime before they descended to the earth.

"The habitation of the spirits of heaven shall be in heaven; but upon earth shall be the habitation of terrestrial spirits, who are born on earth. (24)"

(24) Note the many implications of vss. 3-8 regarding the progeny of evil spirits.

"The spirits of the giants shall be like clouds, (25) which shall oppress, corrupt, fall, content, and bruise upon earth. They shall cause lamentation. No food shall they eat; and they shall be thirsty; they shall be concealed, and shall not (26) rise up against the sons of men, and against women; for they come forth during the days of slaughter and destruction."

(25) The Greek word for "clouds" here, nephelas, may disguise a more ancient reading, Napheleim (Nephilim). (26) Shall not. Nearly all manuscripts contain this negative, but Charles, Knibb, and others believe the "not" should be deleted so the phrase reads "shall rise up."

"And as to the death of the giants, wheresoever their spirits depart from their bodies, let their flesh, that which is perishable, be without judgment. (27) Thus shall they perish, until the day of the great consummation of the great world. A destruction shall take place of the Watchers and the impious."

(27) Let their flesh…be without judgment. Or, "their flesh shall be destroyed before the judgment" (Knibb, p. 102).

"They raised me up into a certain place, where there was (28) the appearance of a burning fire; and when they pleased they assumed the likeness of men."

(28) Where there was. Or, "where they [the angels] were like" (Knibb, p. 103).

"Then they elevated me to a babbling stream, (29) and to a fire in the west, which received all the setting of the sun."

(29) To a babbling stream. Literally, "to water of life, which spoke" (Laurence, p. 23).

"Then Uriel said, Here the angels, who cohabited with women, appointed their leaders; And being numerous in appearance (30) made men profane, and caused them to err; so that they sacrificed to devils as to gods. For in the great day there shall be a judgment, with which they shall be judged, until they are consumed;"

(30) Being numerous in appearance. Or, "assuming many forms" (Knibb, p. 106). 1 Cor. 10:20

"Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who presides over Ikisat, (31) over paradise, and over the cherubim."

(31) Ikisat. The serpents (Charles, p. 92; Knibb, p. 107).


Net edition: In this translation there is no verse 8 in chapter 20; while R. H. Charles' translation has: "Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise."

"From there I afterwards passed on to another terrific place; Where I beheld the operation of a great fire blazing and glittering, in the midst of which there was a division. Columns of fire struggled together to the end of the abyss, and deep was their descent. But neither its measurement nor magnitude was I able to discover; neither could I perceive its origin."

"This, he said, is the prison of the angels; and here they are kept for ever."

"He answered, Three separations have been made between the spirits of the dead, and thus have the spirits of the righteous been separated. Namely, by a chasm, by water, and by light above it."

"Then shall they greatly rejoice and exult in the Holy One. The sweet odor shall enter into their bones; and they shall live a long life on the earth as your forefathers have lived; neither in their days shall sorrow, distress, trouble, and punishment afflict them."

"And I blessed the Lord of glory, the everlasting King, because He has prepared this tree for the saints, formed it, and declared that He would give it to them."

"Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who were with me, replied, This valley is the accursed of the accursed for ever. Here shall be collected all who utter with their mouths unbecoming language against God, and speak harsh things of His glory. Here shall they be collected. Here shall be their territory."

"There I beheld choice trees, (32) particularly, those which produce the sweet-smelling opiate, frankincense and myrrh; and trees unlike to each other."

(32) Choice trees. Literally, "trees of judgment" (Laurence, p. 35; Knibb, p. 117).

"Where I perceived a goodly tree, which in smell resembled Zasakinon. (33)"

(33) Zasakinon. The mastic tree (Knibb, p. 118).

"Then I beheld another mountain containing trees, from which water flowed like Neketro, (34) Its name was Sarira, and Kalboneba. (35)"

(34) Neketro. A nectar (Knibb, p. 119). (35) Sarira, and Kalboneba. Styrax and galbanum (Knibb, p. 119).

"And upon this mountain I beheld another mountain, upon which were trees of Alva. (36) These trees were full, like almond trees, and strong;"

(36) Alva. Aloe (Knibb, p. 119).

"From there I passed on above the summits of those mountains to some distance eastwards, and went over the Erythraean sea. (37) And when I was advanced far beyond it, I passed along above the angel Zateel,"

(37) Erythraean sea. The Red Sea.

"When righteousness shall be manifested (38) in the presence of the righteous themselves, who will be elected for their good works duly weighed by the Lord of spirits; and when the light of the righteous and the elect, who dwell on earth, shall be manifested; where will the habitation of sinners be? And where the place of rest for those who have rejected the Lord of spirits? It would have been better for them, had they never been born."

(38) When righteousness shall be manifested. Or, "when the Righteous One appears" (Knibb, p. 125; cp. Charles, p. 112). Matt. 26:24

"From that period those who possess the earth shall cease to be powerful and exalted. Neither shall they be capable of beholding the countenances of the holy; for the light of the countenances of the holy, the righteous, and the elect, has been seen by the Lord of spirits. (39)"

(39) For the light... Lord of spirits. Or, "for the light of the Lord of spirits will have appeared on the face of the holy, the righteous, and the chosen" (Knibb, p. 126).

"A cloud then snatched me up, and the wind raised me above the surface of the earth, placing me at the extremity of the heavens."

"All the holy and the elect sung before him, in appearance like a blaze of fire; their mouths being full of blessings, and their lips glorifying the name of the Lord of spirits. And righteousness incessantly dwelt before him."

"After this I beheld thousands of thousands, and myriads of myriads, and an infinite number of people, standing before the Lord of spirits."

"The fourth voice I heard expelling the impious angels, (40) and prohibiting them from entering into the presence of the Lord of spirits, to prefer accusations against (41) the inhabitants of the earth."

(40) Impious angels. Literally, "the Satans" (Laurence, p. 45; Knibb, p. 128). Ha-satan in Hebrew ("the adversary") was originally the title of an office, not the name of an angel. (41) Prefer accusations against. Or, "to accuse" (Charles, p. 119).

"their proceeding forth before the sun, and their adherence to the path allotted them, (42) in obedience to the command of the Lord of spirits. Potent is his name for ever and for ever."

(42) Their proceeding forth... path allotted them. Or, "the sun goes out first and completes its journey" (Knibb, p. 129; cp. Charles, p. 122).

"In that day shall the Elect One sit upon a throne of glory; and shall choose their conditions and countless habitations, while their spirits within them shall be strengthened, when they behold my Elect One, for those who have fled for protection to my holy and glorious name.*)"

"In that day I will cause my Elect One to dwell in the midst of them; will change the face of heaven; will bless it, and illuminate it for ever."

"He answered and said to me, This is the Son of man, to whom righteousness belongs; with whom righteousness has dwelt; and who will reveal all the treasures of that which is concealed: for the Lord of spirits has chosen him; and his portion has surpassed all before the Lord of spirits in everlasting uprightness."

"This Son of man, whom you behold, shall raise up kings and the mighty from their dwelling places, and the powerful from their thrones; shall loosen the bridles of the powerful, and break in pieces the teeth of sinners."

"and shall expel him from the temples, in which they assemble; And with him the faithful, (43) who suffer in the name of the Lord of spirits."

(43) Shall expel him... the faithful. Or, "will be driven from the houses of his congregation, and of the faithful" (Knibb, p. 132; cp. Charles, p. 131).

"In that day shall the holy ones assemble, who dwell above the heavens, and with united voice petition, supplicate, praise, laud, and bless the name of the Lord of spirits, on account of the blood of the righteous which has been shed; that the prayer of the righteous may not be intermitted before the Lord of spirits; that for them he would execute judgment; and that his patience may not endure for ever. (44)"

(44) That his patience... endure for ever. Or, "(that) their patience may not have to last for ever" (Knibb, p. 133).

"At that time I beheld the Ancient of days, while he sat upon the throne of his glory, while the book of the living was opened in his presence, and while all the powers which were above the heavens stood around and before him."

"In that place I beheld a fountain of righteousness, which never failed, encircled by many springs of wisdom. Of these all the thirsty drank, and were filled with wisdom, having their habitation with the righteous, the elect, and the holy."

"In his presence he existed, and has revealed to the saints and to the righteous the wisdom of the Lord of spirits; for he has preserved the lot of the righteous, because they have hated and rejected this world of iniquity, and have detested all its works and ways, in the name of the Lord of spirits. For in his name shall they be preserved; and his will shall be their life."

"But in the day of their trouble, the world shall obtain tranquillity. In his presence shall they fall, and not be raised up again; nor shall there be any one to take them out of his hands, and to lift them up: for they have denied the Lord of spirits, and his Messiah. The name of the Lord of spirits shall be blessed."

"In those days the saints and the chosen shall undergo a change. The light of day shall rest upon them; and the splendour and glory of the saints shall be changed."

"In the day of trouble evil shall be heaped up upon sinners; but the righteous shall triumph in the name of the Lord of spirits. Others shall be made to see, that they must repent, and forsake the works of their hands;"

"In those days shall the earth deliver up from her womb, and hell deliver up from hers, that which it has received; and destruction shall restore that which it owes."

"In those days the mountains shall skip like rams, and the hills shall leap like young sheep satiated with milk; and all the righteous shall become like angels in heaven."

"Their countenance shall be bright with joy; for in those days shall the Elect One be exalted. The earth shall rejoice; the righteous shall inhabit it, and the elect possess it."

"After that period, in the place where I had seen every secret sight, I was snatched up in a whirlwind, and carried off westwards."

"I beheld the angels of punishment, who were dwelling there, and preparing every instrument of Satan."

"And there my eyes beheld the instruments which they were making, fetters of iron without weight. (47)"

(47) Without weight. Or, "of immeasurable weight" (Knibb, p. 138).

"All the waters, which are in the heavens and above them, shall be mixed together. The water which is above heaven shall be the agent; (48)And the water which is under the earth shall be the recipient: (49)"

(48) Agent. Literally, "male" (Laurence, p. 61). (49) Recipient. Literally, "female" (Laurence, p. 61).

"And he sware by his great name, saying, Henceforwards I will not act thus towards all those who dwell upon earth. But I will place a sign in the heavens; (50) and it shall be a faithful witness between me and them for ever, as long as the days of heaven and earth last upon the earth."

(50) Cp. Gen. 9:13
, "I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth."

"He said, To each of their elect and their beloved, (51) that they may be cast into the fountains and deep recesses of the valley."

(51) To each of…their beloved. Or, "Each to his own chosen ones and to his own beloved ones" (Knibb, p. 139).

"Then shall princes (52) combine together, and conspire. The chiefs of the east, among the Parthians and Medes, shall remove kings, in whom a spirit of perturbation shall enter. They shall hurl them from their thrones, springing as lions from their dens, and like famished wolves into the midst of the flock."

(52) Princes. Or, "angels" (Charles, p. 149; Knibb, p. 140).

"In those days shall the mouth of hell be opened, into which they shall be immerged; hell shall destroy and swallow up sinners from the face of the elect."

"After this I beheld another army of chariots with men riding in them. And they came upon the wind from the east, from the west, and from the south. (53)"

(53) From the south. Literally, "from the midst of the day" (Laurence, p. 63).

"In that day shall be distributed for food (54) two monsters; a female monster, whose name is Leviathan, dwelling in the depths of the sea, above the springs of waters;"

(54) Distributed for food. Or, "separated from one another" (Knibb, p. 143).

"And a male monster, whose name is Behemoth; which possesses, moving on his breast, the invisible wilderness. His name was Dendayen in the east of the garden, where the elect and the righteous will dwell; where he received it from my ancestor, who was man, from Adam the first of men, (55) whom the Lord of spirits made."

(55) He received it…first of men. Or, "my [great-] grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam" (Charles, p. 155). This implies that this section of the book was written by Noah, Enoch's descendant, rather than Enoch. Scholars have speculated that this portion of the book may contain fragments of the lost Apocalypse of Noah.

"And he said, You, son of man, are here desirous of understanding secret things. -"

Electronic edition: It seems this conversation was interrupted here, and then continued in verses 24 and 25.

"He shall call to every power of the heavens, to all the holy above, and to the power of God. The Cherubim, the Seraphim, and the Ophanin, all the angels of power, and all the angels of the Lords, namely, of the Elect One, and of the other Power, who was upon earth over the water on that day,"

"all, who sleep not, shall bless it in heaven above. All the holy in heaven shall bless it; all the elect who dwell in the garden of life; and every spirit of light, who is capable of blessing, glorifying, exalting, and praising your holy name; and every mortal man, (56) more than the powers of heaven, shall glorify and bless your name for ever and ever."

(56) Every mortal man. Literally, "all of flesh" (Laurence, p. 73).

"The Lord of spirits sat upon the throne of his glory. And the spirit of righteousness was poured out over him. The word of his mouth shall destroy all the sinners and all the ungodly, who shall perish at his presence."

"Trouble shall come upon them, as upon a woman in travail, whose labour is severe, when her child comes to the mouth of the womb, and she finds it difficult to bring forth."

"One portion of them shall look upon another. They shall be astonished, and shall humble their countenance; And trouble shall seize them, when they shall behold this Son of woman sitting upon the throne of his glory."

"Then shall the kings, the princes, and all who possess the earth, glorify him who has dominion over all things, him who was concealed;"

"for from the beginning the Son of man existed in secret, whom the Most High preserved in the presence of his power, and revealed to the elect."

"All the kings, the princes, the exalted, and those who rule over all the earth, shall fall down on their faces before him, and shall worship him. They shall fix their hopes on this Son of man, shall pray to him, and petition him for mercy."

"Then shall the Lord of spirits hasten to expel them from his presence. Their faces shall be full of confusion, and their faces shall darkness cover."

"The angels shall take them to punishment, that vengeance may be inflicted on those who have oppressed his children and his elect."

"but the saints and elect shall be safe in that day; nor the face of the sinners and the ungodly shall they thenceforwards behold."

"The Lord of spirits shall remain over them: And with this Son of man shall they dwell, eat, lie down, and rise up, for ever and ever."

"The saints and the elect have arisen from the earth, have left off to depress their countenances, and have been clothed with the garment of life."

"That garment of life is with the Lord of spirits, in whose presence your garment shall not wax old, nor shall your glory diminish."

"In the day of our suffering and of our trouble he will not save us, neither shall we find rest. We confess that our Lord is faithful in all his works, in all his judgments, and in his righteousness. In his judgments he pays no respect to persons;"

"In those days Noah saw that the earth became inclined, and that destruction approached. (57)"

(57) Chapters 64, 65, 66 and the first verse of 67 evidently contain a vision of Noah and not of Enoch (Laurence, p. 78). [Net. ed: In this version: Chapters 65, 66, 67.]

"A commandment has gone forth from the Lord against those who dwell on the earth, that they may be destroyed; for they know every secret of the angels, every oppressive and secret power of the devils, (58) and every power of those who commit sorcery, as well as of those who make molten images in the whole earth."

(58) The devils. Literally, "the Satans" (Laurence, p. 78).

"who replied, On account of their impiety have their innumerable judgments been consummated before me. Respecting the moons have they inquired, and they have known that the earth will perish with those who dwell upon it, (59)"

(59) Respecting the moons... dwell upon it. Or, "Because of the sorceries which they have searched out and learnt, the earth and those who dwell upon it will be destroyed" (Knibb, p. 155).

"He, the holy One, will establish your name in the midst of the saints, and will preserve you from those who dwell upon the earth. He will establish your seed in righteousness, with dominion and great glory; (60) and from your seed shall spring forth righteousness and holy men without number for ever."

(60) With dominion…glory. Literally, "for kings, and for great glory" (Laurence, p. 79).

"After this he showed me the angels of punishment, who were prepared to come, and to open all the mighty waters under the earth: That they may be for judgment, and for the destruction of all those who remain and dwell upon the earth."

"Now then shall the angels labour at the trees; (61) but when they proceed to this, I will put my hand upon it, and preserve it. The seed of life shall arise from it, and a change shall take place, that the dry land shall not be left empty."

(61) Shall... labour at the trees. Or, "are making a wooden (structure)" (Knibb, p. 156).

"And when all this was effected, from the fluid mass of fire, and the perturbation which prevailed (62) in that place, there arose a strong smell of sulphur, which became mixed with the waters; and the valley of the angels, who had been guilty of seduction, burned underneath its soil."

(62) The perturbation which prevailed. Literally, "troubled them" (Laurence, p. 81). Rev. 20:10

"And in those days shall these waters be to kings, to princes, to the exalted, and to the inhabitants of the earth, for the healing of the soul and body, and for the judgment of the spirit. Their spirits shall be full of revelry, (63) that they may be judged in their bodies; because they have denied the Lord of spirits, and although they perceive their condemnation day by day, they believe not in his name."

(63) Revelry. Or, "lust" (Knibb, p. 157).

"For these waters of judgment shall be for their healing, and for the death (64) of their bodies. But they shall not perceive and believe that the waters will be changed, and become a fire, which shall blaze for ever."

(64) Death. Or, "lust" (Charles, p. 176; Knibb, p. 158).

"After this he gave me the characteristical marks (65) of all the secret things in the book of my great-grandfather Enoch, and in the parables which had been given to him; inserting them for me among the words of the book of parables."

(65) Characteristical marks. Literally, "the signs" (Laurence, p. 83).

"and that was, when they stood in the presence of the Lord of spirits. In like manner also holy Rakael said to Raphael, They shall not be before the eye of the Lord; (66) since the Lord of spirits has been offended with them; for like Lords (67) have they conducted themselves."

(66) They shall not... eye of the Lord. Or, "I will not take their part under the eye of the Lord" (Knibb, p. 159). (67) For like Lords. Or, "for they act as if they were Lord" (Knibb, p. 159).

"The name of the first is Yekun: (68) he it was who seduced all the sons of the holy angels; and causing them to descend on earth, led astray the offspring of men."

(68) Yekun may simply mean "the rebel" (Knibb, p. 160).

"The name of the fifth is Kasyade: he discovered to the children of men every wicked stroke of spirits and of demons: The stroke of the embryo in the womb, to diminish it; (69) the stroke of the spirit by the bite of the serpent, and the stroke which is given in the mid-day by the offspring of the serpent, the name of which is Tabaet. (70)"

(69) The stroke... to diminish it. Or, "the blows (which attack) the embryo in the womb so that it miscarries" (Knibb, p. 162). (70) Tabaet. Literally, "male" or "strong" (Knibb, p. 162).

"Thus in the heavens take place the blowings of the winds: all of them have breathings, (71) and effect a complete combination of breathings."

(71) Breathings. Or, "spirits" (Laurence, p. 87).

"It was exalted in the chariots of the Spirit; and the name went forth in the midst of them."

Enoch 14:8
. Enoch 39:3
. Enoch 52:1
. 2 Kings 2:11
. Ezek. 1:4
. Acts. 1:9-11
. Net edition: For better understanding of this verse, see the 1912 translation.

"From that time I was not drawn into the midst of them; but he seated me between two spirits, between the north and the west, where the angels received their ropes, to measure out a place for the elect and the righteous."

Net edition: This probably means that Enoch was given a heavenly throne-chariot, and didn't travel as a passenger among the angels after that.

"And he concealed the spirit of Enoch in the heaven of heavens. There I beheld, in the midst of that light, a building raised with stones of ice; And in the midst of these stone vibrations (72) of living fire."

(72) Vibrations. Literally, "tongues" (Laurence, p. 90).

"Then the Seraphim, the Cherubim, and Ophanin (73) surrounded it: these are those who never sleep, but watch the throne of his glory."

(73) Ophanin. The "wheels" of Ezek. 1:15-21
(Charles, p. 162).

"Then that angel came to me, and with his voice saluted me, saying, You are the Son of man, (74) who art born for righteousness, and righteousness has rested upon you. The righteousness of the Ancient of days shall not forsake you."

(74) Son of man. Laurence's original translation renders this phrase "offspring of man." Knibb (p. 166) and Charles (p. 185) indicate that it should be "Son of man," consistent with the other occurrences of that term in the Book of Enoch.

"And thus shall length of days be with the Son of man. (75) Peace shall be to the righteous; and the path of integrity shall the righteous pursue, in the name of the Lord of spirits, for ever and ever."

(75) Son of man. Literally, "offspring of man," or "the Christ who comes from the offspring of man."

"I beheld the gates whence the sun goes forth; and the gates where the sun sets; In which gates also the moon rises and sets; and I beheld the conductors of the stars, among those who precede them; six gates were at the rising, and six at the setting of the sun. *) All these respectively, one after another, are on a level; and numerous windows are on the right and on the left sides of those gates."

*) Net edition: These 12 gates are the Zodiak, according to Laurences' remarks in his 1838 edition.

"And in the fourth gate, through which the sun with the moon proceeds, in the first part of it, (76) there are twelve open windows; from which issues out a flame, when they are opened in their proper periods."

(76) Through which…part of it. Or, "from which the sun rises in the first month" (Knibb, p. 168).

"This is the law and progress of the sun, and its turning when it turns back, turning during sixty days, (77) and going forth. This is the great everlasting luminary, that which he names the sun for ever and ever."

(77) That is, it is sixty days in the same gates, viz. Thirty days twice every year (Laurence, p. 97).

"And thus it goes in and out, neither slackening nor resting; but running on in its chariot by day and by night. It shines with a seventh portion of light from the moon; (78) but the dimensions of both are equal."

(78) It shines with…from the moon. Or, "Its light is seven times brighter than that of the moon" (Knibb, p. 171). The Aramaic texts more clearly describe how the moon's light waxes and wanes by a half of a seventh part each day. Here in the Ethiopic version, the moon is thought of as two halves, each half being divided into seven parts. Hence, the "fourteen portions" of Enoch 73:5-8
. (Knibb, p. 171).

"Every month at its exit and entrance it becomes changed; and its periods are as the periods of the sun. And when in like manner its light is to exist, (79) its light is a seventh portion from the light of the sun."

(79) And when in…is to exist. I.e., when the moon is full (Knibb, p. 171).

"From the middle direct gate proceed rain, dew, life, and health. And from the third gate, which is westwards, inclining towards the south, proceed mist, frost, snow, rain, dew, and blight."

(80) First. Or, "seventh" (Knibb, p. 178).

"The account of the twelve gates of the four quarters of heaven is ended. All their laws, all their infliction of punishment, and the health produced by them, have I explained to you, my son Mathusala. (81)"

(81) Mathusala. Enoch's son, Methuselah. Cp. Gen. 5:21

"And with respect to the remaining four, they take their course in the cavity of the north, two to their sea, the Erythraean sea, and two are poured into a great sea, where also it is said there is a desert."

(82) The Red Sea.

"They set, enter into the western gate, circuit by the north, and through the eastern gate go forth over the face of heaven."

(83) A seventh portion…from the moon. Or, "seven parts of light which are added to it more than to the moon" (Knibb, p. 182).

"Its period is less that that of the sun, according to the ordinance of the stars, by five days in one half year (84) precisely."

(84) In one half year. Literally, "in one time" (Laurence, p. 110).

"and all the classes of the stars shall be shut up against sinners. The thoughts of those who dwell on the earth shall transgress within them; and they shall be perverted in all their ways. They shall transgress, and think themselves (85) gods;"

(85) Themselves. Or, "them" i.e., the chiefs among the stars (vs. 6) (Knibb, p. 186).

"He said, O Enoch, look on the book which heaven has gradually dropped down; (86) and, reading that which is written in it, understand every part of it."

(86) The book which…dropped down. Or, "the book of the tablets of heaven" (Knibb, p. 186).

"In the first part of the year rises and rules Melkyas, who is named Tamani, and Zahay. (87) All the days of his influence, during which he rules, are ninety-one days."

(87) Tamani, and Zahay. Or, "the southern sun" (Knibb, p. 190).

"The other conductor next after them is Helemmelek, whose name they call the splendid Zahay. (88) All the days of his light are ninety-one days."

(88) Zahay. Or, "sun" (Knibb, p. 191).

"These are the signs of the days upon earth, heat and drought; while the trees bring forth their fruits, warmed and concocted, and give their fruits to dry. The flocks follow and yean. (89) All the fruits of the earth are collected, with everything in the fields, and the vines are trodden. This takes place during the time of his influence."

(89) Follow and yean. Mate and bear young.

"I was lying down in the house of my grandfather Malalel, when I saw in a vision heaven purifying, and snatched away. (90)"

(90) Purifying, and snatched away. Or, "was thrown down and removed" (Knibb, p. 192).

"And falling to the earth, (91) I saw likewise the earth absorbed by a great abyss; and mountains suspended over mountains. Hills were sinking upon hills, lofty trees were gliding off from their trunks, and were in the act of being projected, and of sinking into the abyss."

(91) And falling to the earth. Or, "and when it fell upon the earth" (Knibb, p. 192).

"Then my grandfather Malalel raised me up, and said to me: Why do you thus cry out, my son? And wherefore thus do you lament?"

(92) My voice faltered. Literally, "the word fell down in my mouth" (Laurence, p. 118).

"When I went down below, and looking up to heaven, beheld the sun proceeding from the east, the moon descending to the west, a few scattered stars, and everything which God has known from the beginning, I blessed the Lord of judgment, and magnified him: because he hath sent forth the sun from the chambers (93) of the east; that, ascending and rising in the face of heaven, it might spring up, and pursue the path which has been pointed out to it."

(93) Chambers. Literally, "windows" (Laurence, p. 119).

"O my Lord, let the race perish from off the earth which has offended you, but a righteous and upright race establish for a posterity (94) for ever. Hide not your face, O Lord, from the prayer of your servant."

(94) For a posterity. Literally, "for the plant of a seed" (Laurence, p. 121).

"Before I married your mother Edna, I saw a vision on my bed; (95) And behold, a cow sprung forth from the earth; And this cow was white. Afterwards a female heifer sprung forth; and with it another heifer: (96) one of them was black, and one was red. (97)"

(95) This second vision of Enoch seems to portray in symbolic language the complete history of the world from the time of Adam down to the final judgment and the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom (Charles, p. 227). (96) Another heifer. The sense seems to require that the passage should read, "two other heifers" (Laurence, p. 121). (97) Cain and Abel.

"Again I looked attentively, while sleeping, and surveyed heaven above. And behold a single star fell from heaven. Which being raised up, ate and fed among those cows."

"Then one of those four went to the white cows, and taught them a mystery. While the cow was trembling, it was born, and became a man, (98) and fabricated for himself a large ship. In this he dwelt, and three cows (99) dwelt with him in that ship, which covered them."

(98) Noah. (99) Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

"Then began wild beasts and birds to bring forth. Of all these the different kinds assembled together, lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, wild boars, foxes, rabbits, and the hanzar. The siset, the avest, kites, the phonkas, and ravens. Then the white cow (100) was born in the midst of them."

(100) Abraham.

"Then the white cow, (101) which was born, brought forth a black wild sow and a white sheep. (102) That wild sow also brought forth many swine. And that sheep brought forth twelve sheep. (103)"

(101) Isaac. (102) Esau and Jacob. (103) The twelve patriarchs.

"When those twelve sheep grew up, they delivered one of them (104) to the asses. (105) Again those asses delivered that sheep to the wolves, (106) And he grew up in the midst of them."

(104) Joseph. (105) The Midianites. (106) The Egyptians.

"One (107) however, which was saved, escaped, and went away to the wild asses. I beheld the sheep moaning, crying, and petitioning their Lord. With all their might, until the Lord of the sheep descended at their voice from his lofty habitation; went to them; and inspected them."

(107) Moses.

"Then that sheep went to the wolves with the word of the Lord, when another met him, (108) and proceeded with him. Both of them together entered the dwelling of the wolves; and conversing with them made them understand, that thenceforwards they were not to touch the sheep."

(108) Aaron.

"Yet the wolves began to follow the sheep, until they overtook them in a certain lake of water. (109)"

(109) The Red Sea.

"I likewise saw there in the vision, that this sheep became a man, built a house (110) for the Lord of the sheep, and made them all stand in the house."

(110) A house. A tabernacle (Milik, p. 205).

"I perceived also that the sheep which proceeded to meet this sheep, their conductor, died. I saw, too, that all the great sheep perished, while smaller ones rose up in their place, entered into a pasture, and approached a river of water. (111)"

(111) The river Jordan.

"I saw likewise that they ceased to cry after that sheep, and passed over the river of water. And that there arose other sheep, all of whom conducted them, (112) instead of those who were dead, and who had previously conducted them."

(112) The Judges of Israel.

"and that sometimes their eyes were opened, and that sometimes they were blind; until another sheep (113) arose and conducted them. He brought them all back; and their eyes were opened."

(113) Samuel.

"Then dogs, foxes, and wild boars began to devour them, until again another sheep (114) arose, the master of the flock, one of themselves, a ram, to conduct them."

(114) Saul.

"Then their Lord sent the former sheep again to a still different sheep, (115) and raised him up to be a ram, and to conduct them instead of that sheep who had laid aside his glory."

(115) David.

"Going therefore to him, and conversing with him alone, he raised up that ram, and made him a prince and leader of the flock. All the time that the dogs (116) troubled the sheep,"

(116) The Philistines.

"That ram likewise begat many sheep, and died. Then there was a smaller sheep, (117) a ram, instead of him, which became a prince and leader, conducting the flock. And the sheep increased in size, and multiplied. And all the dogs, foxes, and wild boars feared, and fled away from him. That ram also struck and killed all the wild beasts, so that they could not again prevail in the midst of the sheep, nor at any time ever snatch them away."

(117) Solomon.

"Again I saw that those sheep wandered, and went various ways, forsaking that their house; And that their Lord called to some among them, whom he sent (118) to them. But these the sheep began to kill."

(118) The prophets.

"And when one of them was saved from slaughter (119) he leaped, and cried out against those who were desirous of killing him. But the Lord of the sheep delivered him from their hands, and made him ascend to him, and remain with him."

(119) Elijah.

"and left them in the power of lions, tigers, wolves, and the zeebt, (120) and in the power of foxes, and of every beast. And the wild beasts began to tear them."

(120) Zeebt. Hyenas. (Knibb, p. 209).

"After this, I saw shepherds overlooking for twelve hours. And behold three of the sheep (121) departed, arrived, went in; and began building all which was fallen down of that house. But the wild boars (122) hindered them, although they prevailed not."

(121) Zerubbabel, Joshua, and Nehemiah. (122) The Samaritans.

"And I observed during the time, that thus thirty-seven (123) shepherds were overlooking, all of whom finished in their respective periods as the first. Others then received them into their hands, that they might overlook them in their respective periods, every shepherd in his own period."

(123) Thirty-seven. An apparent error for thirty-five (see verse 7). The kings of Judah and Israel (Laurence, p. 139).

"I observed likewise during the time, that twenty-tree shepherds (124) were overlooking; who completed in their respective periods fifty-eight periods."

(124) The kings of Babylon, etc., during and after the captivity. The numbers thirty-five and twenty-three make fifty-eight; and not thirty-seven, as erroneously put in the first verse (Laurence, p. 139).

"He looked at them. Their eyes were wide open; and he cried out to them. Then the dabela (125) saw him; all of whom ran to him."

(125) Dabela. The ibex, probably symbolizing Alexander the Great (Laurence, p. 140).

"Then I saw, that the man, who wrote the book at the word of the Lord, opened the book of destruction, of that destruction which the last twelve shepherds (126) wrought; and pointed out before the Lord of the sheep, that they destroyed more than those who preceded them."

(126) The native princes of Judah after its delivery from the Syrian yoke.

"Then I saw that the nature of all of them was changed, and that they became white cows; And that the first, who was in the midst of them, spoke, when that word became (127) a large beast, upon the head of which were great and black horns; While the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over them, and over all the cows."

(127) Spoke, when that word came. Or "was a wild-ox, and that wild-ox was…" (Knibb, p. 216).

"Every place of strength (128) shall be surrendered with its inhabitants; with fire shall it be burnt. They shall be brought from every part of the earth, and be cast into a judgment of fire. They shall perish in wrath, and by a judgment overpowering them for ever."

(128) Every place of strength. Or, "all the idols of the nations" (Knibb, p. 218). Rev. 20:9

"Afterwards there shall be another week, the eighth (137) of righteousness, to which shall be given a sword to execute judgment and justice upon all oppressors. Sinners shall be delivered up into the hands of the righteous,"

(137) The beginning of the eighth Millennium.

"The former heaven shall depart and pass away; a new heaven shall appear; and all the celestial powers shall shine with sevenfold splendour for ever."

"And Enoch said, Concerning the children of righteousness, concerning the elect of the world, and concerning the plant of righteousness and integrity. Concerning these things will I speak, and these things will I explain to you, my children: I who am Enoch. In consequence of that which has been shown to me, from my heavenly vision and from the voice of the holy angels (129) have I acquired knowledge; and from the tablet of heaven have I acquired understanding."

(129) Holy angels. A Qumran text reads, "Watchers and Holy Ones," clearly denoting heavenly Watchers who did not fall along with the wicked ones (Milik, p. 264). See also Dan. 4:13
, "a watcher and a holy one came down from heaven"; Dan. 4:17
, "watchers, and... holy ones."

"But after me, in the second week, great wickedness shall arise, and fraud shall spring forth. In that week the end of the first shall take place, in which mankind shall be safe. (130) But when the first is completed, iniquity shall grow up; and during the second week he shall execute the decree (131) upon sinners."

(130) Mankind shall be safe. Or, "a man will be saved" (Knibb, p. 224). (131) The Deluge after the first (in the middle of the second) Millennium (2500 B.C.).

"Afterwards, in the third week, during its completion, a man (132) of the plant of righteous judgment shall be selected; and after him the Plant (133) of righteousness shall come for ever."

(132) King David at the end of the third Millennium (1000 B.C.). (133) The Messiah at the end of the fourth Millennium (4 B.C. to 30 A.D.).

"Then in the fifth week, during its completion, the house of glory and of dominion (134) shall be erected for ever."

(134) The establishment (30 A.D.) and building of the Church through the fifth (and sixth) Millennium.

"After that, in the sixth week, all those who are in it shall be darkened, the hearts of all of them shall be forgetful of wisdom, and in it shall a Man (135) arise and come forth. And during its completion He shall burn the house of dominion with fire, and all the race of the elect root shall be dispersed. (136)"

(135) The Messiah at the end of the sixth Millennium. (136) The destruction of Jerusalem and the disbursement of those who dwell in that land at the end of the sixth (and the beginning of the seventh) Millennium.

"Woe to those who build up their houses with crime; for from their very foundations shall their houses be demolished, and by the sword shall they themselves fall. Those, too, who acquire gold and silver, shall justly and suddenly perish."

"Woe to you who are rich, for in your riches have you trusted; but from your riches you shall be removed; because you have not remembered the Most High in the days of your prosperity."

"Now then will we do whatsoever we are disposed to do; for we have amassed silver; our barns are full, and the husbandmen of our families are like overflowing water."

"you who are men, clothe yourselves more elegantly that married women, and both together more so than unmarried ones, (138) everywhere arraying yourselves in majesty, in magnificence, in authority, and in silver: but gold, purple, honour, and wealth, like water, flow away."

(138) Than married women... unmarried ones. Or, "than a woman and more coloured (garments) than a girl..." (Knibb, p. 230).

"I have sworn to you, sinners, that neither mountain nor hill has been or shall be subservient (139) to woman. Neither in this way has crime been sent down to us upon earth, but men of their own heads have invented it; and greatly shall those who give it efficiency be execrated."

(139) Subservient. Literally, "a servant." Perhaps in furnishing them with treasures for ornaments (Laurence, p. 159).

"Woe to you who change the words of integrity. They transgress against the everlasting decree; (140) And cause the heads of those who are not sinners to be trodden down upon the earth."

(140) They transgress... the everlasting decree. Or, "they distort the eternal law" (Knibb, p. 232).

"Their hearts shall become impious through their folly, and their eyes be blinded with mental superstition. (141)"

(141) Mental superstition. Literally, "with the fear of their hearts" (Laurence, p. 162).

"Now will I point out a mystery: Many sinners shall turn and transgress against the word of uprightness. They shall speak evil things; they shall utter falsehood; execute great undertakings; (142) and compose books in their own words."

(142) Execute great undertakings. Literally, "create a great creation" (Laurence, p. 173). 1 Tim. 4:1-2

"But when they shall write all my words correctly in their own languages, They shall neither change or diminish them; but shall write them all correctly; all which from the first I have uttered concerning them. (143)"

(143) Despite Enoch's mandate, his book was most certainly "changed" and "diminished" by later editors, though these fragments of it have survived.

"Behold they committed crimes; laid aside their class, and intermingled with women. With them also they transgressed; married with them, and begot children. (144)"

(144) After this verse, one Greek papyrus adds, "who are not like spiritual beings, but creatures of flesh" (Milik, p. 210).

"Wait, until sin pass away; for their names shall be blotted out of the holy books; their seed shall be destroyed, and their spirits slain. They shall cry out and lament in the invisible waste, and in the bottomless fire shall they burn. (145)"

(145) In the bottomless fire shall they burn. Literally, "in the fire shall they burn, where there is no earth" (Laurence, p. 178).

"I will bring them into the splendid light of those who love my holy name: and I will place each of them on a throne of glory, of glory peculiarly his own,"

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